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Military suicide research paper

Edition: Available editions Global Perspectives. While the US has the most powerful military machine in history, it is also incomparably the most expensive - and members of Congress work aggressively to maintain it.

New Zealand's coalition government has to balance strong martial and pacifist traditions. But ageing equipment and climate change will require taxpayers to fund expensive upgrades for the military. Handbook of Defense Economics. Volume 1. Various years. Yearbook: World Armament and Disarmament. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smaldone, J. Destiny essay topics 15, No. Smith, D. Discussion Paper, No. Smith, R. Gleditsch, G. Lindgren, N. Mouhleb, S. Smit, and I. Claremont, CA: Regina Books. Westley, C. Anderson, and S. Subscription Login to verify subscription Give a gift subscription. User Username Password Remember me.

Why is America in Afghanistan? What interests justify its sacrifices? How will the war end? If the United Military research paper finds it hard to answer such questions after nearly two decades, the coming years are unlikely to provide clarity. If a campaign has no end, it can have no objective. If it has no objective, it cannot be won.

This Perspective can help to inform upcoming decisions to improve U. This study, commissioned by the European Defence Agency, identifies key defence skills within the governmental domain and proposes recommendations for their sustainment.

Featured The portion of the national budget that is allocated to defense covers salaries, training, and health care; maintains and purchases arms, equipment, and facilities; funds military operations; and funds the development of new technologies. Report Gaps Exist Between U. Strategy and Military Capacity May 7, Arena, Mark V. Ausink, John A. Baldwin, Laura H. Bana, Sarah H. Bonds, Timothy M. Camm, Frank Chan, Edward W. Chase, Michael S. Chenoweth, Mary E. Chivvis, Christopher S.

Chow, Brian G. Clarke, Colin P. Conley, Raymond E. Connor, Kathryn Cook, Cynthia R. Cornish, Paul Cox, Amy G. Drezner, Jeffrey A. Germanovich, Gene Gerstein, Daniel M. Gilmore, J. Michael Girardini, Kenneth J. Godges, John P. Gompert, David C. In fact, military expenditures may have been the principal cause of fiscal innovation for most of history. All in all, I would summarize the required model, combining elements from the various frameworks, as being evolutionary, with regimes during different stages having different priorities and burdens imposed by military spending, depending also on their position in the international system.

A successful ascendancy to a leadership position required higher expenditures, a substantial navy, fiscal and political structures conducive to increasing the availability of credit, and reoccurring participation in international military suicide research paper.

For most societies since the ancient river valley civilizations, military exertions and the means by which to finance them have been the crucial problems of governance. A centralized ability to plan and control spending were lacking in most governments until the nineteenth century.

In fact, among the ancient civilizations, financial administration and the government were inseparable. Governments were organized on hierarchical basis, homework procrastination the rulers having supreme control over military decisions. Taxes were often paid in kind to support the rulers, thus making it more difficult to monitor and utilize the revenues for military campaigns over great distances.

For these agricultural economies, victory in war usually yielded lavish tribute to supplement royal wealth and military spending research paper to maintain the army and control the population. Dependence on distant, often external suppliers of food limited the expansion of these empires. Fiscal management in turn was usually cumbersome and costly, and all of the ancient governments were internally unstable and vulnerable to external incursions. Soldiers, however, often supplemented their supplies by looting the enemy territory.

The optimal size of an ancient empire was determined by the efficiency of tax collection and allocation, resource extraction, and its transportation system.

Moreover, the supply of metal and weaponry, though important, was seldom the only critical variable for the military success an ancient empire. There were, however, important military research paper points in this respect, for example the introduction of bronze weaponry, starting with Mesopotamia about B. The introduction of iron weaponry about B. The river valley civilizations, nonetheless, paled in comparison with the military might and economy of one of the most efficient military behemoths of all time: the Roman Empire.

Military spending was the largest item of public spending throughout Roman history. Military spending research paper Roman governments, similar to Athens during the time of Pericles, had problems in gathering enough revenue.

Military spending research paper

Therefore, for example in the third century A. Roman citizenship was extended to all residents of the empire in order to raise revenue, as only citizens paid taxes.

There were also other constraints on their spending, such as technological, geographic, and other productivity concerns. Direct taxation was, however, regarded as a dishonor, only to be extended in crisis times. Thus, taxation during most of the empire remained moderate, consisting of extraordinary taxes military suicide research paper liturgies in ancient Athens during such episodes.

For example, in republican and imperial Rome military wages accounted for more than half of the revenue. The demands of the empire became more and more extensive during the third and fourth centuries A.

For example, the limited use of direct taxes and the commonness of tax evasion could not fulfill the fiscal demands of the crumbling empire.

Military suicide research paper

Armed forces were in turn used to maintain internal order. Societal unrest, inflation, and external incursions finally brought the Roman Empire, at least in the West, to an end. During the Middle Ages, following the decentralized era of barbarian invasions, a varied system of Military suicide research paper feudalism emerged, in which often feudal lords provided protection for communities for service or price.

Since the Merovingian era, soldiers became more specialized professionals, with expensive horses and equipment. By the Carolingian era, military service had become largely the prerogative of an aristocratic elite. Prior to A. Also, in terms of science and inventions the Europeans were no match for these empires until the early modern period.

Moreover, it was not until the twelfth century and the Crusades that the feudal kings needed to supplement the ordinary revenues to finance large armies. Internal discontent in the Middle Ages often led to an expansionary drive as the spoils of war helped calm the elite - for example, the French kings had to establish firm taxing power in the fourteenth century out of military necessity.

The political ambitions of medieval kings, however, still relied on revenue strategies that catered to the short-term deficits, which made long-term credit and prolonged military campaigns difficult. Innovations in the ways of waging war and technology invented by the Chinese and the Islamic societies permeated Europe with a delay, such as the use of pikes in the fourteenth century and the gunpowder revolution of the fifteenth century, which in turn permitted armies to attack and defend larger territories.

This also made possible a commercialization of warfare in Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as feudal armies had to give way to professional mercenary forces. Accordingly, medieval states had to increase their taxation levels and tax collection to support the growing costs of warfare and the maintenance of larger standing armies. Equally, the age of commercialization of warfare was accompanied by the rising importance of sea power as Senior portfolio essays states began to build their overseas empires as opposed to for example the isolationist turn of Ming China in the fifteenth century.

These were also states that were economically cohesive due to internal waterways and small geographic size as well. The early winners in the fight for world leadership, such as England, were greatly influenced by the availability of inexpensive credit, enabling them to mobilize limited resources effectively to meet military expenses.

Their rise was of course preceded by the naval exploration and empire-building of many successful European states, especially Spain, both in Europe and around the globe. This pattern from command to commercialized warfare, from short-term to more permanent military management system, can be seen in the English case. In the periodthe English defense share military military spending research paper as a percentage of central government expenditures averaged at However, in the periodthe mean English defense share was For example, Charles Tilly has estimated the battle deaths to have exceeded two million.

General Military Topics

Henry Kamen, in turn, has emphasized the mass scale destruction and economic dislocation this caused in the German military research paper, especially to the civilian population. With the increasing scale of armed conflicts in the seventeenth century, the participants became more and more dependent on access to long-term credit, because whichever government ran out of money had to surrender first. Therefore, the Spanish Crown defaulted repeatedly during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and on several occasions forced Spain to seek an end to its military activities.

Spain still remained one of the most important Great Powers military spending research paper the period, and was able to sustain its massive empire mostly intact until the nineteenth century. What about other country cases - can they shed further light into the importance of military spending and warfare in their early modern economic and political development? A key question for France, for example, was the financing of its military exertions. This was due to both growth in the size of the army and the navy, and the decline in the purchasing power of the French livre.

The overall burden of war, however, remained roughly similar in this period: War expenditures accounted roughly 57 percent of total expenditure inwhereas they represented about 52 percent in Moreover, as for all the main European monarchies, it was the expenditure on war that brought fiscal change in France, especially after the Napoleonic wars.

Between andthere was a percent increase in French public expenditure and a consolidation of the emerging fiscal state. This also embodied a change in the French credit market structure. A success story, in a way a predecessor to the British model, was the Dutch state in this period.

This financial regime lasted up until the end of the eighteenth century. Here again we can observe the intermarriage of military spending and the availability of credit, essentially the basic logic in the Ferguson model. One of the key features in the Dutch success in the seventeenth century was their ability to pay their soldiers relatively promptly.

The Dutch case also underlines the primacy of military spending in state budgets and the burden involved for the early modern states. As we can see in Figure 1, the defense share of the Dutch region of Groningen remained consistently around 80 to 90 percent until the mid-seventeenth century, and then it declined, at least temporarily during periods of military spending research paper.

Source : L. European State Finance Database. ESFD, [cited 1. Respectively, in the eighteenth century, with rapid population growth in Europe, armies also grew in size, especially the Russian army. The new style of warfare brought on by the Revolutionary Wars, with conscription and war of attrition as new elements, can be seen in the growth of army sizes.

For example, the French army grew over 3.Military Hazing - Research papers on military hazing go into the practice that has been criticized as going beyond simple hazing pranks and leading to physical or mental damage to the individual that can, and has, resulted in stress or even death. Naval Aircraft Carriers - Naval Aircraft Carrier research papers deal with the historyand future of these military vessels.

Military research paper

Sexual Assault in the Military - Research papers on sexual assault in the military look into the statistics of sexual assault and rapes done in the US military. Type keyword s to search. Printing blood vessels, cartilage, and even minor organs could revolutionize combat medicine. By Kyle Mizokami. By Tim McMillan. Robots Could Join the Battle as Artillery Mules Resupplying robot trucks could create seamless supply chains on the ….

Research Jan 28, What information do I need for the request? Required Information: Military research paper request must contain certain basic information for us to locate your service records. This information includes: The veteran's complete name used while in service Service number Social Security number Branch of service Dates military suicide research paper service Date and place of birth especially if the service number is not known.

Tips On How To Look For Great Military Research Paper Sources

If you suspect your records may have been involved in the firealso include: Place of discharge Last unit of assignment Place of entry into the service, if known. All requests must be signed and dated by the veteran or next of kin. If you are the next military suicide research paper kin of a deceased veteranyou must provide proof of death of the veteran such as a copy of death certificate, letter from funeral home, or published obituary.

We will do our best to meet any priorities. For example, if you were applying for a VA-guaranteed Home Loan and need to provide proof of military service by a specific date. Please provide: the request number if you have one, the name, address and phone number of the requester, and the veteran's branch of service to aid us to finding your request in our system. Military Innovations of the Civil War - Military Innovations of the Civil War term papers show that the two greatest innovations of the civil war were the submarine and armor plating military suicide research paper navel warfare.

Theory of War Strategy - In American history, countless war strategies have been used to varying effects, but the unifying factor is that there is always a strategy in place. Military Battles - Research paper topic suggestions on battles fought in various wars and the distinguishing strategy and events of each battle. This saw nations wage wars against others and either win or lose to their rivals.

Due to increased tasks within the forces, there was need for diversification of the field in terms of gender. This meant that women, who proved capable of serving courageously, were given a chance to join the rest military suicide research paper the male recruits. However, their introduction in the combats came with various challenges to both the females and the military at large.

Some of the challenges that they faced as females were inadaptability to the hostile climates, poor emotional control and a scarce response to the critical situations that required accuracy and quick reactions.

This meant that they had become liabilities in the military rather than being beneficial. From the past research it was found that the combat unit cohesion was at risk. The specialized units did not give back as much as they were military research paper due to the weakness introduced by the presence of female officers in these units.

It military spending research paper due to these observations that the concerned authorities decided to regulate promotion of females to higher ranks within the smaller units in As per military record displayed in Pentagon in the United States of America in the past few wars their military had been engaged in, the highest number of casualties has been women.

The recent statistics shows that in the recent ended Iraq war, more that female officers lost their lives, while in Afghanistan, it is estimated that were killed. Though these facts played a role, the main reason that can be attributed to the statistics of these casualties is that women were engaged in the specialized units which they had less exposure to and also were banned from.

Therefore, since the draw-down of the military forces in the United States, the Congress ought to reevaluate the permission given to female soldiers to take part in combat military occupational specialties; they will have to sustain the military research paper and the readiness of the whole unit. This will give women a chance to get engaged in frequent operations to gain experience.

Engagement of the women officers in the battle front in the specialized unit is a clear indication that the military fraternity has realized the importance of women in these units Britt, W Thomas et al. Moreover, the fact that women have not objected to the idea of being recruited into these units proves that they are willing and have capability to operate in these units.

Another reason that should compel the Congress to reconsider allowing women in these units is that both men and women who qualify to join military undergo the same training; this means that they have managed to stand the rigorous training.

Basing the argument on this foundation, it is evident that these women ought to be allowed to serve in the same units that military men serve. In recent times, cases of military raping and other sexual related crimes have been reported in the areas where these units had undertaken military research paper operations.

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