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Scholar urges delegates at conference in the Netherlands to use measures like Twitter to measure public engagement, rather than turning them into new metrics. Peer review is best term paper sites least bad system we have for assessing quality, but metrics can help to determine attention and impact, says Euan Adie. Who should decide? And should the mugs be obliged to keep quiet? Seven academics have their say.

Leading university networks in Africa and Europe say a body based on the European Research Council is needed to boost African research. Skip to main content. These are the 20 most popular academic papers of December 14, By Ellie Bothwell.

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Annotated Bibliography. College Papers For Sale. PowerPoint Presentation. Article Writing. Grant Proposal. Literature Review. Creative Writing. Movie Review. Reaction Paper.GAAP aims to improve the clarity, consistency, and comparability of the communication of financial information. GAAP covers such topics as revenue recognitionbalance sheet classification, and materiality.

The ultimate goal of GAAP is ensure a company's financial statements are complete, consistent, and comparable. This makes it easier for investors to analyze and extract useful information from the company's financial statements, including trend data over a period of time. It also facilitates the comparison of graduate term paper information dnr term paper different companies. Accountants commit to applying the same standards throughout the reporting process to prevent errors or discrepancies.

Accountants are expected to fully disclose and explain the reasons behind any changed or updated standards in the footnotes to the financial statements. Both negatives and positives should be reported with full transparency and without the expectation of debt compensation. Entries should be distributed across the appropriate periods of time. For example, revenue should be reported in its relevant accounting period.

It presupposes that parties remain honest in all transactions.

These are the 20 most popular academic papers of - Times Higher Education (THE)

If a corporation's stock is publicly tradedits financial statements must adhere to rules established by the U. The SEC requires that publicly traded companies in the U. GAAP compliance is ensured through an appropriate auditor's opinionresulting from an external audit by a certified public accounting CPA firm.

Although it is not required for non-publicly traded companies, GAAP is viewed favorably by lenders and creditors. Most financial institutions will require annual GAAP compliant financial need term paper as a part of their debt covenants when issuing business loans.

If a financial statement is not prepared using GAAP, investors should be cautious. Without GAAP, comparing financial statements of different companies would be extremely difficult, even within the same industry, making an apples-to-apples comparison hard.

GAAP regulations require that non-GAAP measures be identified in financial statements and other public disclosures, such as press releases. The hierarchy of GAAP is designed to improve financial reporting.

It consists of a framework for selecting the principles that public accountants should use in preparing financial statements in line with U. The businessman has to analyse and evaluate the results ascertained periodically.

At the end of an accounting period, an Income Statement is prepared to ascertain the profit or loss made during that accounting period and Balance Sheet is prepared which depicts the financial position of the business as on the last day of that period. During the course of preparation of these statements capital revenue items are to be necessarily distinguished. According to this concept, the transactions are recorded in the books of account with the respective amounts involved.

For example, if an asset is purchases, it is entered in the accounting record at the price paid to acquire the i need a term paper and that cost is considered to be the base for all future accounting. It means that the asset is recorded at cost at the time of purchase but it may be methodically reduced in its value by way of charging depreciation.

However, in the light of inflationary conditions, the application of this concept is considered highly irrelevant for judging the financial position of the business. The essence of the matching concept lies in the view that all costs which are associated to a particular period should be compared with the revenues associated to the same period to obtain the net income of the business. Under this concept, the accounting period concept is relevant and it is this concept matching concept which necessitated the provisions of different adjustments for recording outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, outstanding incomes, incomes received in advance, etc.

This concept assumes or recognizes revenue when a sale is made. Sale is considered to be complete when the ownership and property are transferred from the seller to the buyer and the consideration is paid in full. According to this concept the revenue is recognized on its realization and not on its actual receipt. Similarly the costs are recognized when they are incurred and not when payment is made. This assumption makes it necessary to give certain adjustments in the preparation of income statement regarding revenues and costs.

But under internet term paper accounting system, the revenues and costs are recognized only when they are actually received or paid. Hence, the combination of both cash and accrual system is preferable to get rid of the limitations of each system. This concept ensures that all accounting must be based on objective evidence, i. Only then, the transactions can be verified by the auditors and declared as true or otherwise.

The verifiable evidence for the transactions should be free from the personal bias, i. Valuation of inventory, etc. The following conventions are to be followed to have a clear and meaningful information and data in accounting:. The convention of consistency refers to the state of accounting rules, concepts, principles, practices and conventions being observed and applied constantly, i.

If consistency is there, the results and performance of one period can he compared easily and meaningfully with the other. It also prevents personal bias as the persons involved have to follow the consistent rules, principles, concepts and conventions. This convention, however, does not completely ignore changes.

It admits changes wherever indispensable and adds to the improved and modern techniques of accounting. The convention of disclosure stresses the importance of providing accurate, full and reliable information and data in the financial statements which is of material interest to the users and readers of such statements.

This convention is given due legal emphasis by the Companies Act, by prescribing formats for the preparation of financial statements. However, the term disclosure does not mean all information that one desires to get should be included in accounting statements.

It is enough if sufficient information, which is dnr term paper material interest to the users, is included. In the prevailing present day uncertainties, the convention of conservatism has its own importance. This convention follows the policy of caution or playing safe. It takes into account all possible losses but not the possible profits or gains. A view opposed to this convention is that there is the possibility of creation of secret reserves when conservatism is sources of hypothesis applied, which is directly opposed to the convention of full disclosure.

Thus, the convention of conservatism should be applied very cautiously.

Accounting term paper

I need a term paper cash basis accounting, entries are recorded only when cash is received or paid. No entry is passed when a payment or receipt becomes due. Income under cash basis of accounting, therefore, represents excess of receipts over payments during an accounting period.

Government system of accounting is mostly on cash basis. Certain professional people record their income on cash basis, but while recording expenses they take into account the outstanding expenses also. In such a case, the financial statements prepared by them for determination of their income are termed as Receipts and Expenditure Account. Under accrual basis of accounting, accounting entries are made on the basis of amounts having become due for payment or receipt.

Incomes are credited to the period in which they are earned whether cash is received or not. Similarly, expenses and losses were detailed to the period in which, they are incurred, whether cash is paid or not. The profit or loss of any accounting period is the difference between incomes earned and expenses incurred, irrespective of cash payment or receipt.

All outstanding expenses and prepaid expenses, accrued incomes and incomes received in advance are adjusted while finalising the accounts. Under the Companies Actall companies are required to maintain the books of accounts according to accrual basis of accounting. For example, a company may follow mercantile system of accounting in respect of its export business. However, government subsidies and duty drawbacks on exports to be received from government are recorded only when they are actually received i.

Such a method could be adopted because of uncertainty with respect of quantum, amount and time of receipt of such incentives and drawbacks. Such internet term paper method of accounting followed by the company is called the hybrid basis of accounting. In practice, the profit or loss shown under this basis will not be realistic. Conservative people who prefer recognising income when received but cautious to provide for all expenses, whether paid or not prefer this system.

It is not widely practised due need term paper the inconsistency. Every business transaction has need term paper aspects. One aspect is debited other aspect is credited. Both the aspects have to be recorded in accounts appropriately. The equation is based on the principle that accounting deals with property and rights to property and the sum of the properties owned is equal to the sum of the rights to the properties.

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The properties owned by a business are called assets and the rights to properties are known as liabilities or equities of the business. Equities can be subdivided into equity of the owners which is known as capital and equity of creditors who represent the debts of the business know as liabilities. These equities may also be called internal equity and external equity. The equation best term paper sites fundamental in the sense that it gives a foundation to the double entry book-keeping system.

This equation holds good for all transaction and events and at all periods of time since every transaction and events has two aspects. If there is increase in assets, this increase is debited in assets account.

If there is decrease in assets, this decrease credited in assets account. Accounting is useful to the management in various ways. It enables the management to assess the achievements of its performance. Actual performance can be compared with the desired performance or with the performance of previous years. The weakness of the business can be identified and corrective measures can be applied to remove them. Various profitability, sales dnr term paper liquidity ratios can be calculated, the actual performance can be evaluated and effective line of action can be decided for the future.

Fund flow statement can also be prepared to understand the additional funds earned during the year and their application.

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The basic function of accounting is to supply meaningful information term paper structure the financial activities of the business to the owners attention getter essays the managers. If the accounts are properly maintained, the assessment of taxes is greatly facilitated. Accounting Principles are not only incomplete but also deprived of from the general acceptance. Because of difference in opinion, some accountants recommend a particular view while others are opposed to it.

There are a number of methods for valuation of stock and goodwill, accounting to hire purchase system, etc. One limitation of accounting principles is this that all accountants do not use a principle in a similar manner.

The accountants of different business houses are implementing the accounting principles according to their need, convenience and nature of business. It does not reflect the current financial position or worth of a business. Accounting is limited to monetary transactions only. It excludes qualitative elements like management, reputation, employee morale, labour strike etc.

Valuation of inventory, provision for doubtful debts and assumption about useful life of an asset may, therefore, differ from one business house to another. Therefore, accounting statements do not always present comparable data. It needs that senior manager's in each department controls the value of internal control because they are a key to huge risk factors.

The Boards have individually all the responsibility for establishing procedure to check the effectiveness of internal control and reviewing and revaluating them their effectiveness. There is a day- to- day review of effectiveness of internal control system and Unilever monitor its risks with ongoing basis.

Jensen believes that the solution to this problem dnr term paper not to completely eliminate the budgeting systems, but instead to change the way performance is measured, the way rewards are given, and the way punishment is applied.

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In budgeting systems, managers are generally rewarded for reaching their targeted levels, and if they do not reach their targets, they are punished. Allowing managers to set their own targets allows google case study analysis strategic management to somehow manipulate gaming the target i need a term paper by setting levels that can be easily achieved.

This is true, especially if a bonus is at stake, managers will do just about everything to reach the goal and collect the bonus. This strategy clearly creates a problem for organizations because every department will follow the same strategy and set goals that are easily attainable, allowing the achievement of the goals and therefore, the collection of the bonuses. Those actions have negative effects on an organization because departments are not coordinating for the best of the organization and department productivity is not being maximized.

Throughout this rich history it is clear to see that certain organizations relating to the accounting profession have made significant strives to improve the reliability and accuracy of what is reported. Each organization plays a major role in defining rules and guidelines to ensure uniformity throughout the profession. The history of this organization dates back towhen the American Association of Public Accountants was formed.

Inthe name was finally changed to what we now know it as today, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Financing Uses decrease fund balance when closed and are recognized on the Modified Accrual basis. Periodically compare actual revenues to estimated revenues. Use a common classification scheme for revenues and estimated revenues.

Estimated Revenues and Revenues are used to control similarly named columns in the detail accounts in the Revenue subsidiary ledger. The sum of the Estimated Revenues and Revenues account balances of the subsidiary ledger must equal the general ledger control account balances for those accounts. Ad valorem taxes are assessed on the value of underlying property. Self assessing taxes are based on income or sales. Taxes due on sales or earnings that have occurred but have not yet been reported at the end of an accounting period are usually estimated and accrued.

If rates are below the statutory limit, property taxes may be viewed as a residual source of revenues. The gross tax levy is calculated as the amount of revenue required from property taxes divided by the estimated collectible portion of the levy. Levied against certain properties that receive a particular benefit that not all taxpayers receive.

Includes items such as vehicle licenses, business licenses, liquor licenses, marriage licenses, animal licenses, building permits, zoning variances, etc. Ordinarily not measurable in advance of transactions; thus, recorded when received in cash. Intergovernmental includes grants and other financial assistance from higher levels of government Shah Sultan College, Bogra. Successfully as a partial requirement.

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